Unorthodox Geology and Geophysics. Oil, Ores and Earthquakes
Over the past 50 years geology and geophysics have been transformed through the use of mathematical methods and computer technology. This has led to much greater speed in the execution of already formalised procedures, together with the enormous advantage of the visualization of underground structures and geometry. However, despite the use of supercomputers and integral and differential equations, the accuracy of geological predictions has not substantially changed. In order to find a giant oil-field about 400 wells still have to be drilled, and earthquakes occur in areas which are still mapped as seismically inactive, including the 1994 Los Angeles quake. This book is directed towards changing important aspects of geological practice. It presents ways of verifying procedures, moving from the use of a number of examples supporting a given hypothesis to the rigorous procedures of experimental physics. The focus of geology is shifted from the description of individual peculiarities of geological objects to finding properties which objects, often as different as the moon from an apple, have in common. It shows how complex webs of underground layers can give rise to high degrees of geometrical order – in diverse regions of the planet. Features and decision rules for finding oil are found to be the same in the South American Andes, in the swamps of Siberia, or in the Northern Hemisphere seabed. The use of appropriate technology can locate new oil fields with 90% precision, thus decreasing the number of exploratory wells by a factor of 20. This shows great promise not only for the protection of the environment, but also for the crucial question of establishing energy independence.
contenido : Part I Pattern recognition: informal aspects. — Chapter 1 Algorithms of pattern recognition and solution of geological problems. –. Chapter 2 Informal stages of recognition: the case of oil beds. — Chapter 3 Compilation of a prognostic Map. — Chapter 4 Proofs and plausible hypotheses. — Part II Analysis and use of a priori information. — Chapter 5 A priori information in pattern recognition. — Chapter 6 Correlation of borehole profiles. — Part III Data analysis and the hoistic approach. — Chapter 7 The identification of objects (systemic approach). — Chapter 8 Solving a non-local problem. — Part IV The moder as a tool for directing data analysis. — Chapter 9 Constructing a model. — Chapter 10 A model as a tool for data analysis. — Chapter 11 Verification of forecasts. — Conclusions.
Incluye bibliografía, referencias